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The Impact of Corporate Performance on Corporate Social Responsibility Activities: The Mediating Role of Corporate Governance in Ethiopian Corporate Business
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Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
In today’s global economy, corporate firms face increasing competition and social pressure. This paper aims to identify the impact of corporate performance on corporate social responsibility activities by using the mediating role of corporate governance evidence obtained from corporate businesses in Ethiopia. The effect of firm performance on CSR and corporate governance as mediating variables was investigated using a sample of TIRET corporate firms in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Structural equation models and multiple regression analysis were estimated and tested using 21 corporate firms. The resulting model shows how corporate governance underlies the important relationship between CSR and firm performance. The results show that the company’s performance is the most influential factor on CSR among the influences studied in this study. Corporate governance has a positive role in acting as a source of legitimacy for CSR activities. This study discusses the importance of outcome-based property theory and presents its conclusions and implications. Corporate firms should identify non-performing companies and outsource non-core values to address gaps in company performance, return on assets, leverage debt to capital structure and governance. To overcome existing efficiency gaps, this study suggests that corporate firms should be restructured, rebranded, reconsider their business models, and be taken over by technology-based firms. This paper contributes to the CSR literature in developing economies. Companies, policy makers and practitioners can take steps to improve CSR practices. We can conclude that socially responsible companies in Ethiopia as a whole, including the Amhara region, are more likely to succeed.
Living in a highly competitive market economy requires companies to focus on important factors such as performance pressure, governance and social responsibility for increased competitive advantage. Flexible capability is a firm’s ability to integrate, develop and structure external and internal knowledge to respond to a rapidly changing environment. Firms in the same industry are seen as different due to different types of resources and capabilities , while the resource-based view of the firm sees the firm’s unique, rare and intangible resources that create competitive advantage and develop growth  . In addition, the relationship between flexible capabilities and organizational performance is positive .
The company has deployed significant equipment and restructured its business model to meet anticipated demand. Competitive advantage can come from company-level resources and corporate social responsibility measures that are difficult to replicate. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as an ongoing corporate strategy over the past few decades, whether through government regulation, consumer demand or market conditions, and continues to play a major role in the global economic downturn. CSR is gaining more and more attention from companies, but it is also increasing the attention of society in general .
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CSR is a business activity that includes social, economic and environmental issues in their business and relationships with stakeholders. CSR is also a company’s legal obligation to society and concern for environmental impact, which focuses on sustainable development, public policy and the environment . CSR is generally an approach to reduce the negative consequences of owner and shareholder pressure to increase profits from building or protecting the company by ensuring that the company’s products, operations, and business activities are safe and compassionate to society . In addition, CSR is a concept in which companies integrate social and environmental concerns with their business activities and interact with voluntary and mandatory activities . These are ethics, citizenship, good corporate governance and others . As the literature above shows, CSR has different contextual concepts and definitions. Therefore, the success of CSR implementation often depends on the capabilities of companies and developing countries, as the knowledge base of CSR is limited in understanding, presence and tacit understanding. All this proves that the issues surrounding the concept of CSR are still being debated.
Various researchers have investigated the relationship between CSR and firm performance using different approaches. Some studies show mixed results (positive, negative or neutral) regarding CSR and company performance. CSR has a positive effect on corporate performance for companies involved in CSR, while corporate social responsibility activities reduce their performance . CSR has a positive and significant effect on the company’s performance indicators, especially return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and earnings on equity ratio. At the same time, CSR dimensions (environment, customer, supplier, employee and social) are positively related to company performance. CSR has a significant and positive relationship with corporate performance , the mediating effect of CEO (CEO) and ownership is positively associated with corporate performance and ownership with CSR. Furthermore, CSR mediates significantly and positively between corporate governance and firm performance . Companies that comply with CSR have a significant impact on company performance . According to previous findings, there is a significant relationship between company performance and CSR. In addition to increasing the company’s social value and reputation, CSR also increases profits and performance. Firm performance has a statistically significant effect on CSR, and firms with better financial performance also engage in CSR practices .
Conversely, CSR and financial performance may have a negative relationship. Companies disclose more information about CSR initiatives when they have a lower return on assets ; After controlling for debt and firm size, highly leveraged firms are less profitable, and larger firms are more profitable. That is, there is no significant relationship between CSR and company performance . The causal relationship between CSR and financial performance shows that more social responsibility does not lead to better financial performance and that financial performance has a negative impact on corporate social responsibility . The inverse effect of potential firm performance on CSR was found to have a mixed relationship . This finding shows a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility and organizational performance, as well as a negative relationship between corporate social responsibility and non-organizational performance.
Therefore, previous studies have produced inconsistent results. Although some results seem reasonable, others contradict each other and lead to different conclusions. Some of these studies use panel data, while others use survey data. Methodological gaps exist in the use of research approaches, samples, instruments and models. Moreover, most studies do not consider corporate governance as a mediating variable in depth and do not focus primarily on the impact of corporate performance on CSR at the firm or company level.
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Several literatures analyze the impact of company performance, company CSR practices and CSR activities on company value using a descriptive mode from the perspective of the selected study area. The causal relationship between stakeholders and CSR implementation has been investigated . These findings show that the environment, customers, shareholders and society have a significant influence on CSR. CSR practices, determinants and challenges are explored from theoretical and empirical studies . The study concluded that CSR centers should strive to promote CSR and promote academic research, encouraging the private sector in the framework of responsible business practices that create awareness. Additionally, CSR practices that focus on triple bottom line CSR and human and planetary perspectives have been explored . This finding summarizes that CSR practices are not balanced in terms of environmental and social CSR aspects; There should be strong community involvement and effective community relations. CSR education in selected companies was investigated in a qualitative study . The findings show that corporate social responsibility is still in its infancy as a critical motivation under national and external market pressure. When controlling environmental and labor conditions,
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