How Much Is My Oil Painting Worth – Scream (Norwegian: Skrik) is a composition created by the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch in 1893. The artist’s anguished face has become one of the most vivid images of art because it expresses the anguish of the human condition. Munch’s work, including The Scream, was a formative influence on the Expressionist movement.
Munch recalled walking at sunset, the clouds “blood red” from the sudden setting sun. He said it was “an endless cry through nature.” Scientists lived in a fjord overlooking Oslo
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And suggested other explanations for the unnatural orange sky, from the effects of a volcanic eruption to Munch’s psychological reaction to his sister’s commitment to a nearby asylum.
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Munch created two versions in paint and two in pastel, as well as a lithographic stone of which several copies have survived. Both painted versions were stolen but have since been recovered. One of the pastel versions was the fourth highest nominal price ever paid for a work of art at public auction. Norwegian title Skrik (Shriek), German title Der Schrei der Natur (Scream of Nature).
One night I was walking down the street, the city on one side and the fjord below. I felt tired and sick. I stopped and looked out over the fjord – the sun was setting and the clouds were turning red. My cry goes through nature; I thought I heard screams. I painted this picture, I painted the clouds as real blood. Color scream. It became The Scream.
I was walking down the street with two refrigerators – the sun was setting – the sky suddenly turned red – I stopped, tired and fell into the fce – the blue-black fjord and the city had tongues of blood and fire – My cold moved and I stood there trembling with anxiety – and I became an endless cry that passed through nature.
Among the theories put forward to account for the red sky in the background is the artist’s memory of the effects of the powerful eruption of the volcano Krakatoa in 1883 and 1884, which turned the sunset red in some parts of the western hemisphere for several years. about ten years. Before Munch painted The Scream.
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This explanation has been challenged by scholars who argue that Munch was an expressive artist and was not primarily interested in literal translations of what he created. Another explanation for the red skies is that they are due to the formation of cumulus clouds that appear in the latitude of Norway and are very similar to the sky shown in The Scream.
Alternatively, it has been suggested that the proximity of a slaughterhouse and a madhouse to the location depicted in the painting may have provided some inspiration.
The scene is set as a view of the road overlooking Oslo from the Oslofjord and Høvedoya, from the hills of Ekeberg.
At the time of the painting, Munch’s manic-depressive sister, Laura Catherine, was suffering in a mountain asylum at the foot of Ekeberg.
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In 1978, Munch scholar Robert Rosblum suggested that the strange skeletal creature in the foreground of the painting was inspired by a Peruvian mummy, which Munch may have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris.
Buried in a fetal position with her hands on her face, this mummy also captured the imagination of Paul Gauguin: it served as the model for figures in more than twenty of Gauguin’s paintings, including the central figure in The Misery of Men. . (Grapes in Arles) and for the old woman on the left, “Where did we come from?” What are we? Where are we going?
In 2004, Italian anthropologist Piero Mannucci suggested that Munch may have seen a mummy at the Museum of Natural History in Florence, which increasingly resembled the painting.
However, later research has challenged the Italian theory, as Munch did not visit Flores until after he painted The Scream.
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The image of “Scream” is compared to what a person with depersonalization disorder experiences with a sense of destruction of the environment and self.
Arthur Lubow described “The Scream” as “an icon of modern art, a Mona Lisa for our time.”
Munch created four versions, two in paint and two in pastel. The first painted version was shown for the first time in 1893. It is in the collection of the Norwegian National Gallery in Oslo. It’s “Kan kun være malet af gal Mand!” (“only a madman would be painted”). A pastel version from the same year, which may have been an early study, is in the collection of the Munch Museum in Oslo. A second pastel version, 1895, is attributed to the German Jewish art collector Hugo Simon.
It sold for $119,922,600 to financier Leon Black at Sotheby’s Impressionist and Modern Art auction on May 2, 2012.
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The second painted version dates from 1910, when Munch revised his earlier compositions.
It is also in the collection of the Munch Museum. These versions are rare, although the 1895 pastel was on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York from October 2012 to April 2013.
In addition, Munch created a composite lithographic stone in 1895, from which many of Munch’s prints survive.
Only four dozen copies were made before the original stone was reprinted by a printer in Munch’s abscess.
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Pigment analysis revealed the use of cadmium yellow, vermilion, ultramarine, and viridian, among other pigments used in the 19th century.
The version in the National Museum of Norway reads in small letters in the upper left corner, “Kan kun være malet af gal Mand!” there is an entry that says pcil. (“only a madman would be painted”). This is possible only by carefully studying the picture. This is assumed to be a review by a critic or exhibitor. This painting was noticed when it was first exhibited in Kofagh in 1904, eleven years after this version was painted. After the infrared photographs, examination of the inscription today shows that the commt was added by Munch.
It has been theorized that Munch added the inscription after critical comments were made when the painting was first exhibited in Norway in October 1895. There is good evidence that Munch was deeply offended by this criticism and was susceptible to similar ills. widespread. to his family.
Scream has become the target of many robberies and robbery attempts. In these robberies, he received some injuries.
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Two men break into the National Gallery in Oslo and steal the gallery’s version of The Scream (1893 tempera on cardboard), February 1994.
Two m broke into the National Gallery in Oslo, stole his own version of The Scream, and left a note saying, “Thank you for your safety.”
In March 1994, after the gallery refused to pay a ransom demand of US$1 million, the Norwegian police launched a swift operation with the help of British police (SO10) and the Getty Museum, and the painting was recovered undamaged on 7 May 1994.
In January 1996, Pal ger [le] was charged with four thefts, including the theft of Munch’s Vampire in 1988.
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They were released on appeal on legal grounds: British agents involved in Operation Sting were under false pretenses in Norway.
The 1910 version of The Scream was stolen on August 22, 2004, when masked gunmen broke into Oslo’s Munch Museum in broad daylight and stole it and the Munch Madonna.
Observers took pictures of the thieves as they took the artwork and fled to their car. On April 8, 2005, Norwegian police arrested a suspect in the robbery, but the pictures were missing and were said to have been burned by the thieves to destroy evidence.
On June 1, 2005, with the arrest of four suspects in the crime, the Oslo city government offered a reward of 2 million Norwegian kroner (approximately US$313,500 or €231,200) for information leading to the discovery of the images. .
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Although the artists disappeared, six m wt were in court in early 2006, variously accused of either helping to plan the robbery or participating in the robbery. In May 2006, three of the defendants were found guilty and sentenced to four to eight years in prison, and two defendants, Björn Ho and Petter Tharalds, must also pay 750 million kroner (about 117.6 million US dollars or euros) in restitution. was 86.7). million) in Oslo.
On August 31, 2006, Norwegian police announced that Scream and Madonna had been found as a result of a police operation, but did not disclose the details of the recovery. Paints are said to be in better condition than expected. “We are 100 percent sure they are genuine,” police chief Iver Stsrud told a news conference. “The
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